Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Conflict Of Native Americans And The Settlers - 921 Words

Right to Resist It is well known that when a dog is backed into a corner it will lash out and bite the provoker. In the case of Native Americans and the settlers, the Natives are the dog, the settlers are the provokers are the corner is the land of North America. In the beginning the settlers came to North America uninvited and set up their new lives here, turned a blind eye to whether or not the Native Americans agreed to them settling there. Once they had their land set up, they then â€Å"flexed their settler muscles† and showed the Native Americans that it was their land now and started forcefully removing the natives from their land. What was the settler’s motivation? What could one assume about the settlers based on their actions? The American Indian Movement was the Native Americans technique of â€Å"biting back† at the settlers for wrongfully taking their land. â€Å"The U.S. government continues to illegally appropriate land and violate the legal right s of Indigenous Peoples† (Churchill). The crucial word illegally is why Native Americans are fighting back with such rage and ferocity. Many natives were willing to die if it meant that their children and fellow natives could keep the land that they rightful possessed. When humans see something that they tremendously want but somebody else has, they will go out of their way to acquire that item. When referring to the settlers, that item is the land the Natives flourished on for thousands of years. When the settlersShow MoreRelatedConflict Between Native Americans And British Settlers1829 Words   |  8 Pagesseventeenth century, there were many clashes between British settlers and Native Americans in New England. The British landed in what they believed to be a desolate wilderness which they would tame and civilize in the name of the Christian God. They viewed the people they encountered there as savage, primitive, and uncivilized-- almost less than human. The settlers regard ed this new land as unowned-- theirs for the taking. The Natives, on the other hand, saw the British as greedy, entitled invadersRead MoreConflict Between Native Americans And Early Euro American Settlers1527 Words   |  7 PagesClashes between the Native Americans and early Euro-American settlers were inevitable. These two groups of people were different in a number of ways ranging from language, culture, and spiritual way-of-life. Where we see these people groups ultimately at odds is in their beliefs relating to land. The Native Americans had settled in the land years before the arrival of the Euro-Americans. Hundreds of Native American groups occupied the land, each tribe with its separate culture, language, and spiritualRead MoreEssay about Culture Conflicts: Native Americans versus The White Man824 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"discovered† it. These people were known as the Native Americans. Most of them had lived peacefully on the land, for hundreds of years until the early 1800s when white settlers began their move west. As these white settlers came upon the Native Americans, they brought with them unwavering beliefs that would end up causing great conflicts with the Native people, who had their own set of values. It was clear that the white man and the Native Americans could not live among each other peacefully for theirRead MoreTaking a Look at Native Americans736 Words   |  3 Pages Native Americans have been in the Americas for much longer than a majority of the races that now inh abit it. Native Americans had lived prosperously on the until the early 1800s when white settlers began their move towards the West. As these white settler came upon the Native Americans they brought with them unwavering beliefs that would end up causing great conflicts with the Native people, who had their own way set of values. It was clear that the white man and the Native Americans could notRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Native Americans1516 Words   |  7 PagesCristina Savaglio Prof. Di Lorenzo History 203 24 November 2014 The Genocide of the Native Americans Early European colonization of the Americas was initially marked by both exchange and conflict. When the English colonists arrived in the Americas most Indian tribes welcomed them. Many Indians believed the settling colonists would assist in protecting their tribe from other powerful tribes in the area, because the colonists had access to weapons. In exchange for this added protection, the IndiansRead MoreAmerindian Arguments and Actions Essay771 Words   |  4 Pages The Native American chronicle is one of treachery and death. These Indians lived lives of concord and prosperity for centuries. However, their reign terminated with the arrival of European settlers in the 15th century. The arising onslaught of foreign colonists is considered by some to be the initiation of the â€Å"American Holocaust† (Native American Genocide). The immigrants did not share customs or spiritual views with the Native people, so they attempted to annihilate the Native American populaceRead MoreEssay On Manifest Destiny1551 Words   |  7 PagesManifest Destiny was a widely spread belief that settlers in the United States should expand across North America. It was the belief that fueled the westward expansion. The westward expansion led to many other events in and around the United States. Before Manifest Destiny and the westward expansion the French and Indian War and Revolutionary War took place which allowed America to declare independence. Manifest Destiny was a big influence on the evolution of transport and technology. Before weRead MoreCivil Conflicts and the Lives of African-Americans1196 Words   |  5 Pages Impacts of the millions of Americans on the Plains Indians as they settled on the Great Plains from 1865 to 1900 The new railroads in the West occasioned by the Civil War opened up the area to economic development and new settlers. American settlers from the East entered via the Mississippi to ranch farm and mine. Native American settlers also poured from Deep South after being convinced that prosperity was only found in the West. Chinese workers constructing the railroads worsened diversity ofRead MoreNative Indians And The Native Americans1491 Words   |  6 Pagesfrom the founding of the New World to what we are today the Native Tribes have been always pushed around. Never able to settle down nor were they able to make peace with the Europeans as they took their land and killed off their tribes. Struggles with disease and European troops, the Native Americans attempted to fight back. Most of the time unsuccessful, but the natives did have their one or two victories. It was almost as if the Natives were nothing but balloons floating in nothing they were justRead MoreChanges Throughout The La nd By William Cronon1152 Words   |  5 Pagesamplify and draw out several different stereotypes and conflicts between societies in the world s history. From Many different accounts all over the world today there has always been a dispute over land. However other disputes shadow in that of the colonial New England settlers and the Native Americans, both virtually revolving their lives around this concept of land distribution. For the settlers it meant wealth and prosperity, for the natives it meant staying alive. William Cronon s book, Changes

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Designing An Effective Advertising Poster Campaign For A...

The task was to create an effective advertising poster campaign for a specific film genre. I chose the horror genre as I am very interested in the way they are put together and how they create an eerie atmosphere by the technical codes (e.g. camera shots). For the primary research I created a questionnaire that looked at all the different aspects used to create a successful horror poster. I based my questionnaire around three different posters that were in the sub-genre that I wanted to research, so I could see how effective the techniques were to the targeted audience. The movies were; Dark Skies, The Blair Witch Project and Haunt. I asked specific questions about the camera shots and the colour schemes used in the posters. The data collected from the questionnaire helped me identify the most effective aspects of the horror posters. 90% of my sample said that they found a dark and gritty colour scheme (generally black, grey, dirty white and blood reds) very effective as it represented the horror genre correctly. Another very effective technique was a contrast between light and shadow. The audience found this effective because it created a dark and unsettling atmosphere throughout the poster. Everyone who completed the questionnaire said that this also complemented the eeriness of the overall product. The questionnaire helped me identify the most prominent part of the posters. All participants who filled out the form said that the main image on the poster was theShow MoreRelatedMovie Marketing6914 Words   |  28 PagesCONTENTS Media, messages and styles used by Indian marketing communicators of Films 1. Overview of Indian Film Industry and Market 2. 4Ps concept applied on the movie industry as a whole 3. Overview of the film making business 4. Classification of movies from a producer’s or distributor’s point of view 5. Classification of movies as products 6. Publicity of movies 7. How different media is used for publicity of movies? 8. Alterative marketing methods 9. Music as a promotionRead MoreBuzz Marketing for Movies7055 Words   |  29 PagesIn today s dynamic entertainment environment, movies are struggling to stay afloat and remain profitable. Challenges such as piracy, digital theft, competition, overlapping movie campaigns, media fragmentation, and audience saturation are forcing marketers to stretch their film budgets and make every dollar as effective as possible. With more and more entertainment options crowding peoples lives, marketers must search for innovative ways to reach movie audiences. By breaking through the daily clutterRead MoreCineplex Entertainment - Loyalty Programs5570 Words   |  23 PagesS w 9B08A008 CINEPLEX ENTERTAINMENT: THE LOYALTY PROGRAM Renà ©e Zatzman wrote this case under the supervision of Professor Kenneth G. Hardy solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. Ivey Management Services prohibits any form of reproduction, storage or transmittal withoutRead MoreProduct Placement10682 Words   |  43 Pagesin commercial TV programming. The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from stronger emotional connection to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group Product placement refers to the practice of including a brand name product, Package e, signage or other trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television or other media vehicles for increasing the memorability of the brand and forRead MoreProduct Placement10670 Words   |  43 Pagesin commercial TV programming. The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from stronger emotional connection to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group Product placement refers to the practice of including a brand name product, Package e, signage or other trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television or other media vehicles for increasing the memorability of the brand andRead MoreEssay about Summary of History of Graphic Design by Meggs14945 Words   |  60 Pagesalphabet became influential throughout the whole world. - The Latin alphabet came to the Romans from Greece by way of the ancient Etruscans. - The letters Y and Z come from the Greek alphabet. - Roman brush writers wrote notices and political campaigns on walls. - Around 190 BC, parchment paper, made from the skins of domestic animals, came in to use. - Vellum, the smoothest form of parchment, is made from the skin of newborn calves (LOL). - The codex replaced the scroll, as it consisted ofRead MoreCase Study Questions On Marketing Process Essay9933 Words   |  40 Pagesand views. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: Quantitative Research is research which is more analytical; this involves studying data, taking into account numeral figures. Various options are analysed, charts, graphs, spreadsheets, tables before deriving on specific outcomes. THE MARKETING PROCESS STAGE ONE SITUATION ANALYSIS Situation Analysis is when a company gathers and studies previous and future external and internal environments. By analysing both the external and internal environmental forces theRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words   |  522 Pagesenvironment Marketing with other functional areas of management Market segmentation Market targeting and positioning Product management Brand management Pricing Channel design and management Retailing and Wholesaling Integrated Marketing Communication Advertising management Sales promotion Personal selling Public relations Understanding individual consumer behaviour Understanding industrial consumer behaviour Customer satisfaction Customer relationship management Marketing of services Rural marketing TypesRead MoreDoctorate9485 Words   |  38 Pagesand its influence on brand equity. The Importance of Archetypes to Branding The article, â€Å"Branding 101: 12 Brand Archetypes,† discusses the importance of Jungian Archetypes in the crafting of brands. The author defines a brand archetype as â€Å"a genre you assign to your brand, based upon symbolism† and its purpose is â€Å"to anchor your brand against something iconic – something already embedded within the conscious and subconscious of humanity† (â€Å"Branding 101: 12 Brand Archetypes†, 2013). By aligningRead MoreMarketing and E-commerce Business65852 Words   |  264 PagesAppillionaires Insight on Society: Designing for Accessibility Insight on Technology: Building a Mobile Presence Case Study: Orbitz Charts Its Mobile Trajectory CHAPTER 5 E-COMMERCE SECURITY AND PAYMENT SYSTEMS Opening Case: Cyberwar: MAD 2.0 Insight on Business: We Are Legion Insight on Technology: Think Your Smartphone Is Secure? Insight on Society: Bitcoin Case Study: Online Payment Marketplace: Goat Rodeo CHAPTER 6 E-COMMERCE MARKETING AND ADVERTISING CONCEPTS Opening Case: Video Ads:

Discrimination or Disparity in Policing Free Essays

Discrimination refers to a difference in the kind of treatment given to individuals based on the race, ethnic background, social class, gender and so forth. Disparity on the other hand refers to a difference in outcomes of a situation which is not necessarily as a result of differential treatment or any kind of biased treatment. According to Wrobleski (2005), discrimination can be defined as a differential unequal treatment exhibited by a person when dealing with an individual from a certain race, sex, religion or ethnic origin. We will write a custom essay sample on Discrimination or Disparity in Policing or any similar topic only for you Order Now In policing, all citizens in a country are entitled to equal amount of protection under the state laws as a sign of democracy. Discrimination in policing occurs when police officers in a given state fail to practice fair treatment when dealing with their workmates and members of the public due to race, gender, ethnic origin, skin color or religion biases and it is a bit different from disparity. For instance, many traffic policemen are known to easily forgive women drivers who violate traffic rules but the same policemen become very strict when dealing with male drivers. On the other hand, women are known to be more careful drivers than their male counterparts and thus, not many women drivers violate traffic rules. The fact that there are many male traffic rules violators than women might lead to some difference in the number of traffic tickets given to women as opposed to those given to men. This kind of difference will be referred to as disparity and not discrimination. The police force has in the recent past being highly associated with cases of discrimination and favoritism. This paper seeks top identify the types of discrimination and disparity in policing mainly based on gender, race and class. Racial discrimination and disparity. The issue of racial and ethnic discrimination and disparity in policing has been widely researched and most studies indicate that there is a common pattern of systematic discrimination and disparity related to factors such as involvement in criminal activities, drug abuse and so forth. Systematic discrimination in policing can be defined as the type of differential treatment which is always present in a state’s justice system regardless of the time or place. Most of racial discrimination in the justice systems exists in form of racial profiling (Wrobleski, 2005). Racial profiling refers to a situation whereby members of a certain race or ethnic origin are subjected to extensive surveillance, police force and criminal justice than others. For instance, law enforcement officers in the U. S have been accused of using the authority given to them in a discretionary way when dealing with minority motorists. The word minority here refers to the blacks, Hispanics or native Americans (Walker, Cassia Miriam, 2000). This is a case of racial profiling and such cases have brought so much controversy in the American policing with many people claiming that the high rates of minority involvement in traffic stops as opposed to the number of whites involved reflects how biased the traffic police officers are in terms of race. A study carried out by the U. S Rand Corporation in 2006 showed that the minority populations are more likely to be stopped by traffic officers, searched and accused of drug trafficking unlike their white counterparts. The study also discovered some pattern of racial disparities with many drug traffickers located in some parts of the state inhabited by the blacks and the Hispanics unlike those areas inhabited by the whites (Lanier Stuart, 2008). However, the law enforcers are quick to defend themselves on this accusations claiming that they operate under pressure to track and bring to book those involved in drug use and trafficking activities. The term racial profiling has been replaced with racial biased policing to show how policing in U. S is biased towards the minority population. Apart from traffic police officers, the law enforcing unit in U. S has been generally accused of possessing a high tendency of using excessive force when dealing with the minority groups than when dealing with the whites. According to Fukurai (2002), racial discrimination and disparity in the U. S has also been identified in the federal justice systems. Racial disparities in the criminal justice systems has been attributed to the high number of minority populations involved in criminal activities. Racial discrimination is responsible for the disparity seen in police arrests, jury selection and prosecution procedures in the current criminal justice systems in the U. S. Gender discrimination and disparity. Discrimination in policing on the bases of gender is very common in U. S just like in most parts of the world. The major issue of gender discrimination and disparity in the U. S policing is associated with lack of gender integration whereby for a long time now, women have been highly ignored and denied the chance to work as police officers. However, a call for gender equality and affirmative action has increasingly advocated for women in the police force and through continued struggle and determination, more and more women are now working in the police force. The major challenge now is that, women police officers are discriminated against and have not been fully accepted by their male counterparts. Such women are subjected to cold reception, hostility and sexual harassment by their male workmates, supervisors and the police department as a whole (Wilbanks, 2007). Other challenges which affect women in policing include too many family responsibilities, conflict in societal roles, sexual harassment, doubts by the public concerning their ability to compete with their male counterparts, doubts about their self worth, inadequate facilities in the police force such as uniforms, locker rooms and so forth. This type of discrimination is worse when the woman in question belongs to the minority population. Researches have indicated that women from the minority populations are exposed to higher discrimination than the white women (Fukurai, 2002). However, it has been found that regardless of the race, all women in policing face a substantial amount of discrimination. Gender disparity in U. S is evident from the statistics depicted by a report by the State Security Department in 2007 which showed that women constitute only four percent of the police force as compared to their male counterparts (Miller, 2007). This can be attributed to discrimination in enrolling women to the police force and the conditions they are subjected to at the work place. Apart from discrimination of women police officers at the work place, another form of gender discrimination in policing is evident whereby, male police officers have been found to act with some level of leniency when dealing with women offenders unlike when dealing with male offenders. This is mostly common especially when the woman in question is young and attractive. Moreover, cases of police officers and law enforcers who ask for sexual favors from women so as to overlook their cases or rule in their favor are also quite common. Class discrimination and disparity. In the U. S, wealth distribution varies widely within the three major social classes. This includes upper class, middle class and low class societies. Most people in U. S fall under the middle class category. Discrimination in policing is brought about by the fact that law enforcers are more biased against low class populations as opposed to those in the middle and upper-class societies (Wrobleski, 2005). When it comes to justice and fairness, the poor people are often denied their rights by the rich and when they go to court, the accuser becomes the accused. This is because the rich have money to bribe in order to have justice passed in their favor. Disparity in terms of social class is common in policing due ti the fact that most poor people have a higher likelihood of engaging in crime and criminal activities when seeking means of survival. This is the main reason why crime is found to be more prevalent among low class societies as opposed to the upper and middle class societies. Conclusion. It is clear that discrimination or disparity is very common in U. S policing based on race, class and gender. Most of the reports and researches reviewed indicate that racial based discrimination is the most common type of discrimination in policing with most police officers practicing what is known as racial profiling. This affects the minority populations of all background regardless of their gender or class. Contemporary researches have also shown that the three types of discrimination interact closely with each other. For instance, most of the minority populations in U. S live in perpetual poverty due to lack of employment and unequal income distribution. This exposes them to higher discrimination due to their race as well as the social class. In addition, it has been found that most black women who work in the police force are subjected to more gender discrimination than the white women. To some extent, discrimination in the police force leads to disparity especially in the case of gender discrimination among women in policing. It can thus be concluded that, discrimination has greatly affected the administration of justice in the criminal justice system and this calls for affirmative action to administer reforms in the system and ensure equal and fair justice for all. Reference. Fukurai, H. (2002). Where Did Hispanic Jurors Go? Racial and Ethnic Disenfranchisement in the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Grand Jury and the Search for Justice. Western Criminology Review 2(2). [Online].   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Retrieved on Sept 20, 2008 from, http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v2n2/fukurai.html. Miller, T. (2007). Gender Discrimination in U. S Policing. New York: Free Press. Lanier, M. and Stuart, H. (2008). Defining Crime. Essential Criminology.   Boulder, CO:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Westview Press. Walker, S., Cassia. S. Miriam, D. (2000). The Color of Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Publishing Company. Wilbanks, W. (2007). The Myth of the Racist Criminal Justice System. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Wrobleski, M. Karen, M. (2005). Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. How to cite Discrimination or Disparity in Policing, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Social Movements- Gay Rights Essays - Same-sex Sexuality

Social Movements- Gay Rights The history of the gay rights movement goes as far back as the late 19th century. More accurately, the quest by gays to search out others like themselves and foster a feeling of identity has been around since then. It is an innovative movement that seeks to change existing norms and gain acceptance within our culture. By 1915, one gay person said that the gay world was a community, distinctly organized (Milestones 1991), but kept mostly out of view because of social hostility. According to the Milestones article, after World War II, around 1940, many cities saw their first gay bars open as many homosexuals began to start a networking system. However, their newfound visibility only backfired on them, as in the 1950's president Eisenhower banned gays from holding federal jobs and many state institutions did the same. The lead taken by the federal government encouraged local police forces to harass gay citizens. Vice officers regularly raided gay bars, sometimes arresting dozens of men and women on a single night (Milestones). In spite of the adversity, out of the 1950s also came the first organized groups of gays, including leaders. The movement was small at first, but grew exponentially in short periods of time. Spurred on by the civil rights movement in the 1960s, the homophile (Milestones) movement took on more visibility, picketing government agencies and discriminatory policies. By 1969, around 50 gay organizations existed in the United States. The most crucial moment in blowing the gay rights movement wide open was on the evening of July 27, 1969, when a group of police raided a gay bar in New York City. This act prompted three days of rioting in the area called the Stonewall Riots, including the appearance of numerous gay power signs. Almost overnight, a massive movement had begun, with participants enthusiastically joining in. By 1973, there were almost eight hundred gay and lesbian organizations in the United States; by 1990, the number was several thousand. By 1970, 5,000 gay men and lesbians marched in New York City to commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots; in October 1987, over 600,000 marched in Washington, to demand equality (Milestones) Over the next two decades, half the states decriminalized homosexual behavior, and police harassment grew less frequent and obvious to the public. Also in 1975, it became legal for gays to hold federal jobs. However all this headway also made room for more opposition. In 1977, Anita Bryant was so successful at obtaining a repeal of a recent gay ordinance in her home state of Florida that by 1980, a league of anti gay clubs had come together to make a force, led in part by Jesse Helms. The AIDS scare that began in the eighties did not help the gay image either, but more citizens joined their ranks in order to combat the oppression and fund a search for the cure, so in the end it actually made the movement stronger. According to the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (2000), by 1999, the anti-sodomy laws of 32 states had been repealed, and in 1996 Vermont granted its gay citizens the right to same sex marriages. Gay rights has come a long way as a social movement, and though it still has a long way to go, it makes a good topic to analyze the process of the social movement. The establishment that the social movement fights against in this case is the predisposed beliefs of American people, and a way of life that has been unchanged for a long time. There are of course establishments with anti-gay agendas, but the real challenge for the gays in finding acceptance has always been convincing people that they are human too. The standard belief that most Americans have had throughout history is that being gay is not only immoral, but also not normal, and sac religious (Olinger). Many people believe that being gay is a disease and should be treated, while others believe it is just sin, and that they should be punished. There is no one establishment in this situation, but only a large group of American citizens who do not understand the issue they are being faced with. However, the goal of

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Research Paper on Technology

Research Paper on Technology Over the past decade, new technologies have come about having astronomically powerful impact on the economy. The leaps and bounds that the technology industry has taken weren’t always for the better. The downsides to all of these victories in man vs. machine have come with their problems and a price. These downfalls are far from over and we can expect a global conflict at the hands of technology in the near future. Technology has been used as a theft device in many respects, from jobs to copyrighted property. With unrestricted sources such as the internet, the ways to slow down this moral massacre are few and far between. Many companies fear technology more than they embrace it. Taking the giant leap into the twenty-first century has frightened some veteran companies to enough to keep them from attempting anything as simple as a corporate website. In 1999, there were over 4,000 lawsuits against technologies. All of these claims were staked on the theory that these new technologies were a threat to the companies’ clients and profits (Economic Evaluation). Such technologies included handheld devices for stock market observation or software that stored passwords to important restricted files. Devices such as these were originally designed to simplify the process of purchasing and trading stocks. Like-wise, such programs were developed to quicken access to files that may be time-crucial in monetary factors (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission). Morality can also be weighed in as a large factor in the decision to integrate newer technologies into your personal corporate empire. Many business owners in their middle ages feel it down-right immoral to recruit machines as field workers (Atlas of U.S. Economy). A product still in beta-stage is one of a new breed of concepts. It is considered part of a new line of ‘smart technologies.’ This particular device has its user fill out a list of preferences and once completed, it acts as its user’s stock broker. It does all the bidding necessary according to its owner’s financial position and risk-taking preferences. However, this device may remain unreleased longer than originally anticipated due to strong protests by professional stock brokers and financial conservatives alike (Hugh Watson). White-collar jobs aren’t the only district of profession that have been and will continue to be greatly affected by new technologies. The music industry has grown by leaps and bounds, especially in the last two years, with the advancement of a technology known as pro-tools. Pro-tools allow you to digitally record, edit, and duplicate your own music into a professional sounding project. Digital cut and paste techniques have simplified the recording process by enabling audio enhancements that older recording engineers would salivate over (Kelin J. Kuhn). The use of pro tools can turn any aspiring garage musician into the next record chart topper by opening the doors to any within a middle-class budget. However, many feel that this is perhaps a door that should have remained closed to these new arrivals. These technologies make much of the talent once needed to create these aural masterpieces obsolete (Impact Fall). Even communication has been revolutionized time and time again by today’s advancements. The ever-growing fad of cell phones manages to multiply itself at an incredible rate year after year. With their introduction to society in the 1980’s, cell phones were rarely used. They were bulky and considerably expensive to maintain. Twenty years later, that same concept built off the idea of mobile communication can not only be found in the hands of corporate executives, but the children of part-time dishwashers. The resources needed to obtain and activate a cell phone have drastically decreased and continue to do so as the technology becomes more and more available (James M. ONeill). Headset devices and microphones simplify the already childishly easy protocol of talking on the cell phone by freeing up the speaker’s hands. Around the bend for this phenomenon is a headset and microphone much like the ones available now, difference being the lack of central device. The act ual phone part of this pocket communication network will but cut out all together. The receiver for the orbiting satellites will be in the earpiece of the device and dialing will be voice activated. The only thing keeping this advancement from release is a potential health risk that is still being investigated by health boards from possible radiation leaking from the receiver which would be located right next to the aural cavity (Kelin J. Kuhn). Perhaps in the most literal interpretation of theft, piracy is a fast-growing phenomenon among adults and children alike. A face the music industry would like to (but never will) soon forget is that of a man named Shawn Fanning. Shawn Fanning created a program named Napster named after a nickname given to him by his friends. Napster made it possible for users to ‘share’ music files on their computer with other people simply by putting it in a folder that could be browsed by another computer outside the LAN. This angered many artists including a man named Lars Ulrich. Ulrich best known as the drummer for Metallica, sued Fanning and several frequent Napster users for illegally downloading Metallica MP3 files. This spelled the end for Napster. This pioneer gnutella program would eventually release a subscription version of its originally free program. However this release went ignored by a public now hooked on the file sharing frenzy (The Arizona Office of Public Affairs). The main gravitation of people flowed to another program known as Morpheus for their file sharing needs. Two key differences between Morpheus and Napster were that Morpheus didn’t just offer music, but additionally offered videos, documents, and software to any of its non-paying members. Also, it delivered the ability to download these media files from multiple users simultaneously, thus increasing download speeds drastically. Morpheus was the merged product of two sponsor-supported companies known as Music City and Kazaa. In the midst 2001 and all of Morpheus’ success, Music City made the overall fatal decision to follow suit with Napster and become a pay service. After this, Kazaa divided from the Morpheus merge to form its own program. Since many users agreed with Kazaa’s decision, the file sharing was not slowed at all. Kazaa’s rise in popularity couldn’t have come at a better time for the frequent internet user, this being because the rise of broadband internet subscribers was flourishing. Broadband internet (which is now used by 65% of CT residents and 47% of the total U.S. residents) increases internet interaction speed by exponential amounts. The simple act of downloading the newest Hollywood hit which would have taken days on dial-up internet can now be completed in a time window as small as an hour or two (Bob Jacobson). The world leader in computer technologies, going by the name of Microsoft Inc. was subjected to an attack of piracy upon the release of their recent popular operating system Windows XP. The ‘Professional’ version of this software was pirated so massively that its product code had to be disabled from windows updates on the Microsoft site. Furthermore, one month before the scheduled legal release of this OS, it was already installed and running on 30,000 computers nationwide. This is a perfect example of one of the biggest known piracy problems. The ability to obtain and/or exploit a technology before it’s even supposed to be available to the general public. There’s a trial scheduled to commence on the piracy issue as a whole in early 2004 (Hugh Watson). These issues cannot be solved with one simple solution. They come with many consequences attached no matter what is decided. Advancement is inevitable and can be very beneficial to any business. However, many developers of newer technologies see it fit to design their product for stealing or destroying. Regulation is most likely one of the best possible solutions to this problem. Many businesses could flourish if only they’d give into the obstacle of technology and accept it. Perhaps they wouldn’t be so apprehensive to do so if so many people weren’t developing their ideas only to hurt others morally and financially.

Monday, March 2, 2020

International Baccalaureate vs Advanced Placement

International Baccalaureate vs Advanced Placement Most people are familiar with AP, or Advanced Placement courses, but more and more families are learning about the International Baccalaureate, and wondering, whats the difference between the two programs? Heres a review of each program, and an overview of how they differ.   The AP Program AP coursework and exams are developed and administered by  CollegeBoard.com  and include 35 courses and exams in 20 subject areas. AP  or Advanced Placement Program consists of a three-year sequence of course work in a specific subject. It is available to serious students in Grades 10 to 12. The course work culminates in rigorous examinations held in May of the graduating year. AP Grading The examinations are scored on a five-point scale, with 5 being the highest mark attainable. The course work in a given subject is generally equivalent to a first-year college course. As a result, a student who achieves a 4 or 5 is usually permitted to skip the corresponding course as a freshman in college. Administered by the College Board, the AP program is guided by a panel of expert educators from around the U.S.A. This great program prepares students for the rigors of college-level work. AP Subjects Subjects offered include: Art HistoryBiologyCalculus AB BCChemistryComputer Science AEconomicsEnglishEnvironmental ScienceEuropean HistoryFrenchGerman LanguageGovernment PoliticsHuman GeographyInternational English Language (APIEL)LatinMusic TheoryPhysicsPsychologySpanishStatisticsStudio ArtUS HistoryWorld History Each year, according to the College Board, more than half a million students take over a million  Advanced Placement exams! College Credits and AP Scholar Awards Each college or university sets its own admissions requirements. Good scores in AP coursework indicate  to admissions staff that a student has achieved a recognized standard in that subject area. Most schools will accept scores of 3 or above as the equivalent of their introductory or first-year courses in the same subject area. Consult university websites for details. The College Board offers a series of 8 Scholar Awards which recognize outstanding scores in AP examinations. Advanced Placement International Diploma In order to earn the Advanced Placement International Diploma (APID) students must earn a grade of 3 or higher in five specified subjects. One of these subjects must be chosen from the AP global course offerings: AP World History, AP Human Geography, or  AP Government and Politics: Comparative. The APID is the College Boards answer to the  IBs international cachet  and acceptance. It is aimed at students studying abroad and American students who wish to attend university in a foreign country. Its important to note, however, this is not a replacement for a high school diploma, it is only a certificate. Description of the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program The  IB  is a comprehensive curriculum designed to prepare students for liberal arts education at the tertiary level. It is directed by the  International Baccalaureate  Organisation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The mission of the IBO is to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. In North America over 645 schools offer IB programs. IB Programmes The IBO offers three programmes: the  Diploma Programme  for juniors and seniorsthe  Middle Years Programme  for students aged 11 to 16the  Primary Years Programme  for students aged 3 to 12 The programmes form a sequence but can be offered independently according to the needs of individual schools. The IB Diploma Programme The IB Diploma is truly international in its philosophy and aims. The curriculum requires balance and research. For instance, a science student has to become familiar with a foreign language, and a humanities student must understand laboratory procedures. In addition, all candidates for the IB diploma must undertake some extensive research into one of over sixty subjects. The IB Diploma is accepted at universities in over 115 countries. Parents appreciate the rigorous training and education which the IB programs offer their children.   What do AP and IB have in common? The International Baccalaureate (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) are both  about excellence. A school doesnt commit to preparing students for these rigorous examinations lightly. Expert, well-trained faculty must implement and teach the courses which culminate in those examinations. They put a schools reputation squarely on the line. It boils down to two things: credibility and universal acceptance. These are key factors in a schools graduates gaining admission to the colleges and universities which they wish to attend. College admissions officers usually have a pretty good idea of a schools academic standards if the school has previously submitted applicants. The schools track record is more or less established by those prior candidates.  Grading policies  are understood. Curriculum taught has been examined. But what about a new school or a school from a foreign country or a school which is determined to upgrade its product? The AP and IB credentials immediately convey credibility. The standard is well-known and understood. Other things being equal, the college knows that a candidate with success in the AP or IB is ready for tertiary level work. The payoff for the student is exemption for many entry-level courses. This, in turn, means that the student gets his or her degree requirements completed more quickly. It also means fewer credits have to be paid for. How do APandIB differ? Reputation:  While the AP is widely accepted for course credit and recognized for its excellence at universities throughout the U.S., the IB Diploma Programmes reputation is even greater. Most international universities recognize and respect an IB diploma. Fewer U.S. schools offer the IB program than the AP- over 14,000 AP schools vs less than 1,000 IB schools according to  US News, but that number is on the rise for IB.  Style of Learning and  Courses:  The AP program has students focus deeply on one particular subject, and usually for a short period of time. The IB program takes a more holistic approach that focuses on a subject by not only delving in deep, but also applying it to other areas. Many IB courses are two-year continuous courses of study, vs. the APs one-year-only approach. IB courses related to each other in a coordinated cross-curricular approach with specific overlapping between the studies. AP courses are singular and not designed to be a part of an overla pping course of study between disciplines. AP courses are one level of study, while IB offers both a standard level and a higher level.   Requirements:  AP courses can be taken at will, in any manner at any time according to the schools discretion. While some schools do allow students to enroll in IB courses in a similar manner, if a student specifically wants to be a candidate for an IB diploma, they must take two years of exclusive IB courses in accordance with rules and regulations from the IBO. IB students aiming for the diploma must take at least 3 higher level courses.  Testing:  Educators have described the difference between the two testing methods as follows: AP tests to see what you dont know; IB tests to see what you do know. AP tests are designed to see what students know about a specific subject, pure and simple.  IB tests ask students to reflect on the knowledge they possess in order to test a students skills and abilities to analyze and present information, evaluate and make arguments, and creatively solve problems.  Diploma:  AP students who meet specific criteria receive a certificate that has an international reputation, but still only graduate with a traditional high school diploma. On the other hand, IB students who meet the required criteria and scores at schools in the US will receive two diplomas: the traditional high school diploma as well as the International Baccalaureate Diploma.   Rigor:  Many AP students will note that their studies are more demanding than non-AP peers, but they have the option to pick and choose courses at will. IB students, on the other hand, but take only IB courses if they wish to qualify for the IB diploma. IB students regularly express that their studies are extremely demanding. While they report high levels of stress during the program, most IB students report being incredibly prepared for college and appreciative of the rigor after they complete the program.   AP vs. IB: Which is Right for Me? Flexibility is a major factor in determining which program is right for you. AP courses provide more wiggle room when it comes to choosing courses, the order in which they are taken, and more. IB courses require a strict course of study for two solid years. If studying outside of the US is not a priority and youre unsure about the commitment to an IB program, then an AP program may be right for you. Both programs will prepare you for college, but where you plan to study may be a deciding factor in which program you choose. Article edited by Stacy Jagodowski

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Anne Hutchinson versus Massachuetts byWellington Newcomb Essay

Anne Hutchinson versus Massachuetts byWellington Newcomb - Essay Example These meetings were even called the dissident meeting that aimed to criticize and maybe even overthrow the current religion. According to the prosecutor, whose speech is represented in the article, Anne was guilty of the most insolent crime of that time. She dared to doubt the church interpretation of the Bible and gave her own understanding of it. A very interesting fact is that Anne considered John Cotton, a local priest, to be her teacher. She valued his sermons and his understanding of religion greatly. He was the true teacher who lit the light of true God’s words to her. However, while she was waiting support from him, since she followed his way of teaching and spreading faith, he turned out to be just a coward and nothing else. She was accused of spreading information that only few priests truly understood God’s words, and among those was the name of father Cotton. After the first session of the trial Anne was put into prison to think over her decision and actions. In a month she stood before the court again. This time the committee was headed by father Cotton. He claimed that she was a sinner, since she dared to doubt the truthfulness of the Puritan church. The main idea of the article is to demonstrate that pioneers in any sphere are usually punished and misunderstood. She was the first woman who initiated the feminism school in religion. In those times a woman was considered to be unworthy of teaching Holly Bible, and what is even worse she was teaching men. A woman was demanded only to visit church and behave as a true puritans. Trying to defend herself, Anne explained that there are some obvious mistakes in the Bible. For example, she says that Puritanism gives wrong instructions to salvation. A person can behave not always right, but he will then get to Heaven. Vice a verse, being a good puritan does not guarantee being with God after death. She also maintained that she never spread the